GREAT BRITAIN. 521 producer of iron ore or of pig-iron, but Sheffield was known five hundred years ago as a maker of steel, and it was here that the crucible process had its birth. The present importance of the district comes from the old established works and the subsidiary steel-using establishments and finishing mills that have grown up around some of the landmarks of the iron trade. This district makes about 280,000 tons of pig-iron per year, or 3 per cent, of the total output; it makes 550,000 tons of steel, this being 12 per cent, of the total of the Kingdom. It also makes 125,-000 tons of puddled bar, or 13 per cent, of the total. The principal . TABLE XXIII-T. Output of Pig-iron in South Yorkshire (Sheffield). Period. Average per Yaer; Tons. 1882 to 1885 inclusive. . . ............ 859,995 1886 to 18901 inclusive ............. 196,844 1891 to 1895 inclusive ....... , . ...... 213,045 1896 to 1900 inclusive ............ . 295,603 1901 to 1903 inclusive .............. . 276,491 steel works in the district are shown in Table XXIII-S, and the yearly output of pig-iron in Table XXIII-T, SEC. XXIIIg.—Staffordshire: It is customary to divide this county into a northern and southern portion. Forty years ago the south produced more ore than the north and three times as much pig-iron. The ore was a poor ironstone imbedded in the shale of the coal formations, but the deposit has slowly become exhausted and it is necessary to excavate so much shale that the selected ore is expensive. Tor these reasons the mining of ore has almost ceased in this southern portion and the furnaces run on hematite from Lancashire or Spain, blackband. from North Staffordshire, or the cheap but silicious ores of Northamptonshire, which need be hauled only 60 miles. In North Staffordshire the ore consists mainly of blackband. Bell, gives the details of the occurrence in one mine as follows: (1) Blackband 14 inches thick lying on the top of 18 inches of poor coal. (2) "Eed slag ironstone"! 6 inches thick lying above 2 feet of poor coal.